How Stencil and Storybook help build fast, accessible web apps with Web Components
In this article, I explain why we decided to use Web Components, with Stencil as a toolkit for building them and Storybook for their presentation. I use CovApp, our recently released, open-source web application, as an example, showing how these technologies helped us deliver fast and accessible web experiences.
Web Components are a set of web platform APIs that allow you to implement encapsulated, reusable, custom HTML elements. When we refer to Web Components, we usually mean the following specifications:
- Shadow DOM: A DOM feature that lets you define a scoped subtree in your HTML element, including style and behavior.
- Custom Elements: Which lets you implement new HTML elements.
- HTML templates and slots: Which lets you define reusable markup templates with placeholders (slots).
The good news for developers is that the most popular browsers support the key Web Components specifications.
Google was one of the first tech companies to adopt, and advocate for, the modern concept of Web Components with the Polymer Project. Google’s backing, along with the stable release of APIs, helped popularize the idea in the web developer community.
One of our guiding principles when selecting a front-end framework or toolkit is to ensure it’s as close as possible to the web standards. Following the web standards helps us prioritize accessibility, cross-compatibility, and progressive enhancement as part of our development.
Since Web Components is a suite of several native Web APIs, we wanted to invest in them as a way of organizing and sharing code across various web projects.
There are several established solutions for creating or generating Web Components, including:
Each of these solutions has its own advantages and analyzing them isn’t within the scope of this article – though I recommend checking each solution out.
That said, here are the main reasons why we chose Stencil:
1. Framework-agnostic build-time tool
2. Optimized builds using Rollup
3. Common (React-like) developer experience
Since Stencil uses features like Virtual DOM, reactive data-binding, async rendering, and JSX, developers with React experience should find it relatively easy to use.
4. Typed components using TypeScript
Stencil generates Web Components with typing information that guarantees properly passed values as component properties.
If you’d like a more comprehensive analysis of these tools, I recommend this Stencil.js vs lit-element vs Vanilla vs Shadow DOM vs Vue.js comparison.
Stencil’s ability to generate various output targets allows developers to build their code depending on how their application will be used. For example, as a distributed content website, web application, or third-party library
Storybook allows us to visualize and test different aspects of our components in a workshop environment. The visual representation of our library also serves as a communication bridge between our design, product, and front-end teams.
One of my favorite Storybook features is the add-on support and, specifically, the automated accessibility audits. Our component library’s advanced functionality includes the following add-ons:
- Knobs: Exposes component properties and inputs for live editing of the components’ UI.
- Viewport: Checks the responsiveness on different viewports.
- Accessibility: Validates components against the WCAG specifications.
Our strategy for sharing components is using package management systems — in our case: npm. This way, we can reuse code snippets in several company web apps and websites.
The biggest benefit we found when using Stencil and Storybook is how quickly they allowed us to create fully functional, accessible web applications. At the same time, we were able to focus on the essential aspects of our solutions, without sacrificing developer experience.
The real test arrived in our initiative with Berlin’s Charité university hospital. We were tasked with creating an app that allowed people to answer questions about coronavirus (COVID-19) symptoms. After filling out the digital questionnaire, the user receives a recommendation, either to visit a hospital or stay home, as well as a personal symptom summary they can show a doctor.
Our time frame to develop this app? One week. The result: CovApp 🙌
We built CovApp using our component library and Stencil for orchestrating the application’s specific views, templates, and logic (for example, decision tree, QR code generation).
We also open sourced CovApp and provided support for custom color palettes, logos, and languages.
Since performance and accessibility were topics we integrated into the development flow from the beginning, we achieved the desired perfect scores for the key performance metrics Time to Interactive (under 2.5 seconds on 3G/first load) and First Contentful Paint (under 2 seconds on 3G/first load).
Alongside the automated check processes, we conducted manual auditing on the semantic content structure, keyboard navigation, focus states, and meaningful announcements by voice-assistive technologies.
The CovApp project highlighted how important digital accessibility is in critical times – like during a pandemic – and why a fast and inclusive web application experience is essential.